Category Archives: Wilderness Journey

From Forgiveness to Thanksgiving

Many Christians miss the rich heritage of most of our holidays. For example, Rosh Hashanah begins on the evening of September 13, 2015. The children’s sermon Water Gate tells the story of the Hebrew slaves being released from Babylon to return to Jerusalem. The blowing of the shophar (pronounced SHOW-far) or ram’s horn, was part of a celebration from which we came to blow horns on New Year’s Day. This year Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) is on September 23, 2015. As I wrote in a blog Day of Atonement three years ago, this was a day of repentance and forgiveness for the whole congregation.

Yom Kippur is explained…The children’s sermon Scapegoat tells the story. Have you ever known a time when you could forgive others but had a hard time forgiving yourself? This story is about allowance: allowance for others and making allowance for our own shortcomings. It was a makeover. Once a year the congregation asked God to wipe the slate clean and got a new start. Two goats were used — one killed for an offering (a Christ pre-figure) and Azazel (pronounced az-aw-ZALE) meaning goat of departure. That goat had a crimson ribbon tied to its head (representing the sin) and was led outside the camp, never to be allowed back in. It was the scapegoat that carried the sins away. Are you still carrying any baggage that you should let go? If you want to receive the forgiveness of God, then make allowance for yourself and forgive yourself the same as you forgive others – perfectly. Then the “at-one-ment” of experiencing the oneness with Christ will flow into your life.

Then fourteen days after the new year, a sense of community is fostered in the feast of booths (Sukkot), or Tabernacles on September 28, 2015. This was really the closest holiday to what we now celebrate in America as Thanksgiving. It was a meet and greet in the street, a welcoming of strangers, and a community-wide celebration of gratefulness for God’s providence throughout their journey in the wilderness and a reminder that we are only dwelling here temporarily. So the coming weeks will give us a moment to pause to be grateful for our redemption, our forgiveness, and to share our hearts full of thanks with those around us.

Sermons for the Season of Lent

The season of Lent starts with Ash Wednesday and the sermon Treasure in Heaven. This sermon explains the difference between treasures that will last and treasures that are temporary. The first Sunday in Lent is Noah’s Ark: Rainbows and Promises. God promised to never destroy the earth with water again. He gave us the rainbow as a reminder of his promise. We should keep our promises just as God keeps His promises. In Journey to Faith the story of Abraham’s journey to faith and his blessing to us was realized in Jesus Christ. Next, in the Ten Commandments we learn to obey God’s commands out of love for Him and our fellowman. Then we learn God punishes sin in Oh No! Snakes! God provides a healing from poisonous snakebites in the wilderness for the Israelites that turn to Him in faith and look upon the bronze serpent. Jesus is the only remedy for our sin. Then in Sir, We Would See Jesus we learn to live in a manner so that others can see Jesus in us. For Palm Sunday, we read the story Pokey, the little Burro. Jesus was humble on Palm Sunday when he was presented as Israel’s Messiah. We should be humble and not make fun of others less fortunate than ourselves. This sermon helps young children learn to accept the mentally disabled. The season of Easter begins with the story of the resurrection of Jesus in He is Risen!

Ten Commandments

Joke: A Sunday school teacher was discussing the Ten Commandments with her five and six year olds. After explaining the commandment to “honor thy father and thy mother” she asked, “Is there a commandment that teaches us how to treat our brothers and sisters?” Without missing a beat one little boy answered, “Thou shalt not kill.”

Text: Exodus 20:1-17; 1 John 3:23

Prop: a poster of Moses with tablets of law or picture of stone tablets to color

Summary: We should obey God’s commands out of love for Him and our fellowman.

How many of you know what a law is? It is a rule. Do you have rules at your house? I have rules at my house such as “always say the blessing before you start eating” and “don’t spit your food out even if you don’t like the way it tastes.” We have other rules like “Don’t hit your sister” and “Look both ways before crossing the street.” Most rules are meant to keep us safe from harm; others are to help us have good manners. Rules have to do with how we behave. Today I want to tell you about God’s rules.

After three months in the wilderness the children of Israel came to Mount Sinai. This was where God told Moses to come so he could give them rules to live by. We call those rules the Ten Commandments. The rules were meant for our own good. They teach us how to behave towards God and each other. God wrote these commandments on tablets of stone.

The first four commandments tell us how to behave toward God. The first rule tells us that there is only one God and we should serve only Him. The second rule says we should not make idols, which are images of other gods. He doesn’t want us to make anything or anybody more important in our lives than Him. The third rule says we should not use God’s name as a swear word. The fourth rule says to keep the seventh day holy. God made all the world in six days and on the seventh day he rested. He wants us to use one day a week for resting and thanking God.

The next six rules tell us how to behave toward each other. The fifth rule says we should honor our parents. That means we need to obey our parents. The sixth rule says do not kill. The seventh rule says married couples should be faithful to each other. The eighth rule says do not steal. The ninth rule says don’t tell lies about others. The tenth rule says don’t want something that belongs to someone else.

God gave us these rules to live by because he loves us and wants what is best for us. Your parents have rules at your house because they love you and want what is best for you. The children of Israel found it hard to live by all the rules at first, but after a while they realized that things worked better when they obeyed the rules. After many years (and lots more rules) Jesus came to explain the rules. He said we should love God first with all that we are and love our neighbor as ourselves.

And this is his commandment, That we should believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, as he gave us commandment. (1 John 3:23) If we are going to love God, we must love Jesus, His Son. Once we love Jesus, we will be able to love each other. That is what God wants us to do.

©2000 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.


For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. – 2 Corinthians 5:1

Text: Leviticus 23:42-43; Deuteronomy 16:15

Props: branches from a palm tree, a myrtle tree, and willow tree, and an etrog (citron). Alternate prop: Make a miniature booth. Cut a shoebox in half, replace the top with small branches. Decorate inside like a dollhouse using small figures and furniture, either hand-made or borrowed from other toys. The cut side of the box should be the opening (three sides with a thatch roof).

Summary: The feast of tabernacles was the first Thanksgiving celebration. We can be thankful we have a home in heaven.

When you think of Thanksgiving what do you think about? (Listen for answers.) I usually think of getting together with family and friends, sharing a nice meal, and thanking God for providing for my needs. At church we celebrate with a Harvest Homecoming service where freewill offerings are given and we have a fellowship meal. It always happens after the fall harvest of crops. We get these traditions from a celebration that God commanded the Israelites to observe called the feast of tabernacles (or booths), also known as the feast of in-gathering.

The feast of tabernacles was really the first Thanksgiving celebration. God wanted the Israelites to remember how he protected them in the wilderness for forty years from the time they left Egypt until they were allowed to enter Canaan. During this time they lived in little booths or huts which they made from the branches of trees. (Show the tree branches.) They were temporary dwelling places that they called tabernacles. We might think of them as homeless shelters. He wanted them to be thankful that he gave them rest, protection from the heat and storms, and eventually the great fruits and produce of the Promised Land of Canaan. (Show the citron.)

(Read Leviticus 23:42-43.) God told them to gather branches and build booths to live in for seven days during this feast. They would build them in the streets and upon the rooftops. Now I know what you are thinking. How can you be happy living in a homeless shelter? This was not a reminder of the hardships and dangers of their wilderness wanderings. It was a joyful time of meeting in the street, renewing old friendships and making new friends, and celebrating with the entire community, even with the strangers that were just visiting them. The booths didn’t have a front door; they were open so anyone could drop in to visit one another. God told them to rejoice because the Lord thy God shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all the works of thine hands. (Deuteronomy 16:15)

lulavThe Israelites were so happy that they sang songs and waved the branches. O give thanks unto the Lord; for he is good: for his mercy endureth forever. (Psalm 118:29) They held all four items together (called a lulav, which is the word for palm), placing the citrons in their left hands and the branches in their right hands. They would shake the lulav three times in a direction, outward and back towards the heart. The branches would rustle when they shook them. They waved them in all six directions like this [stand facing east, demonstrate the wave]: to the south (right), then north (left), east (front), up, down, and west (over shoulder, behind you). By shaking them in all directions, they remembered that God is all around us, at all times, and we praise him with everything we are.*

True happiness comes from realizing that God is with us, even while we are temporarily going through tough times. Our time on earth is short, less than one hundred years for most of us. Our bodies are just temporary booths in this world, like the tabernacles. But we can invite God to come live in our booth with us. A shack in God’s kingdom is worth more than a millionaire’s mansion on earth. When you accept Jesus as your Savior he starts making a dwelling place for you in heaven! That place is a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. (2 Corinthians 5:1) When you make a place for him in your heart, he makes a place for you in heaven!

Let’s pray. Dear Lord Jesus, thank you for all the blessings of life. I am so happy you love me. Amen.
*The four items reminded them of parts of a person. The palm looked like a spine; the myrtle leaf, an eye; the willow leaf, a mouth; the etrog, a heart. So they praised God with their whole person.

©2002 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.


Image of Lulav courtesy of Heart of Wisdom: Biblical Holidays. Used by permission.


Ark of the Covenant

Text: Hebrews 9:2-5

Prop: A picture of menorah below

Summary: God used objects that were symbols of things to come in the Ark of the Covenant.

Today we will learn how the Israelites worshipped God when they were in the wilderness. God told Moses to build a tabernacle. It was a portable tent that could be packed and moved as God led them. It was the place where the priests came to offer sacrifices at the altar. It was a place where God met with Moses and Aaron and told them all the laws that the people were to follow. Now inside the tent there was a second veil, or curtain, that led to the holiest place of all. God had Moses put certain objects in that special room.

Can you guess what may have been in that room? Let’s read in the Bible to find out. (Read the text]

menorahIn the first room (the sanctuary) was the table with the showbread and a special lamp stand with seven olive-oil lamps, called the menorah. God used objects that were showing us about Him from the earliest worship ever established with his people. The showbread was a special offering that was always on display [Exodus 25:30]. It reminds us of Jesus because Jesus said in John 6:35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. The lamp stand had seven lamps signifying the seven spirits of God. It also reminds us of Jesus because Jesus said in John 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.


Ark of the Covenant
Graphic of Ark of Covenant ©1996 Karl Kofoed, Kofoed Design, used by permission.

In the second room, the Holiest of Holies, there was an altar of incense that burned continuously, giving off a sweet smell throughout the area. The Bible says our prayers are like sweet-smelling incense that rises before the Lord. In Psalm 141:2, it says Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense. [see also Revelation 8:3-5] The main attraction in the second room was the Ark of the Covenant, because this is where God sent His presence to talk to Moses. What was the ark? The word ark means chest. It was a box of wood that was covered with pure gold. Inside the box, Moses was commanded to place the Tables of Law, the actual stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were engraved. As time went by, other items were placed in the ark, including the pot of manna and Aaron’s rod that budded.

Again, God was revealing more and more about His nature and how much He loves us with each item used in the worship services. The law meant that we had to be obedient to God. Jesus came to fulfill the Law, not to destroy it. The manna reminded the people that we are to depend on God daily for our life. It was a constant reminder that God provides for us. The rod that budded showed that God chooses who He desires to serve Him. Aaron was chosen to be a priest before God. God loves each of us and shows favor to some to become priests. The rod was a symbol of authority and all authority rests with God. Finally, the mercy seat sat on top of the ark. The cherubim or angels on each end faced each other and covered the ark with their wings. How appropriate that it was called the mercy seat, because this was where God met with his people and forgave them of their sins.

For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us. (Hebrews 9:24) Like those three-dimensional pictures that you stare at until you see the picture in the background, the more you study the Old Testament the more you see Jesus. So you see, in all of the worship objects that God commanded Moses to make, God was making a picture of things to come. He was giving us a picture of Jesus before Jesus came to earth. Next week we will learn more about that when we look at the veil of the temple, and why it served as a separator between God and man.

©1997 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.

Veil of the Temple

And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubims shall it be made… and the vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy. – Exodus 26:31,33

Text: Mark 15:38

Prop: a small curtain

Summary: God used the veil of the temple as a barrier to access the Holiest of Holies. This separation ended as Jesus became the mediator between God and man.

The tabernacle
Graphic of Tabernacle at night ©1996 Karl Kofoed, Kofoed Design, used by permission.

Today I want to share with you about a curtain, or veil, that was placed to separate the sanctuary from the Holiest of Holies in the tabernacle. It was actually a veil that served to separate God from man. This portion of the tabernacle was entered into once a year by the high priest to make an atonement, or sin offering, for the whole nation of Israel.

There is something else I want to explain. It has to do with tearing of the robe. If a king were really mad about something, to show his displeasure, he would tear or rend his robe from top to bottom. He would start at the collar and tear it until he exposed his undergarments and that was shameful. It meant that he was really upset about whatever had happened.

When Jesus was crucified for our sins on the cross, some amazing things happened. For one thing, there was a supernatural darkness that covered the land for three hours while Jesus hung on the cross. He willingly gave up his spirit; it was not taken from him by the crucifixion. A great earthquake shook the ground when he died. In Matthew 27:51 the Bible says And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. Imagine that! It was God the Father that was upset that Jesus had died. He showed his indignation by tearing the veil of the temple in two from top to bottom. The veil which separated God from man had been removed by the sacrifice Jesus made for our sins. Jesus, not a high priest, was now the mediator between God and man. All who seek forgiveness of sins must ask Jesus. He is the One that paid the price for all mankind.

The writer of Hebrews said it eloquently in Hebrews 10:19-22

“Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; And having a high priest over the house of God; Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.”

©1997 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.

Oh No! Snakes!

Text: Numbers 21:5-9; John 3:14-15

Prop: a picture of a snake

Summary: God punishes sin. God provides a healing from poisonous snakebites in the wilderness for the Israelites that turn to Him in faith and look upon the bronze serpent. Jesus is the only remedy for our sin.

One day my wife was planting flowers in the garden when she began to scream. “Oh no! A snake!” I quickly brought a hoe and got rid of it. Some farmers don’t mind garden snakes because they eat rats and other rodents. Some snakes are so deadly you can die if they bite you. I hate snakes! I just think they are bad! Today I want to tell you a story about snakes from the Bible. (Read Numbers 21:5-9)

The children of Israel had been wandering in the wilderness. They were tired, thirsty, hungry, and complaining. They were blaming God for their problems. They wanted more than the manna God was providing each day. They wanted to go back to their old way of life in Egypt where they were slaves. This was a sin and God punished them by sending lots of poisonous snakes among them. Can you imagine the people starting to scream “Oh no! Snakes!” and trying to get away from them? A lot of people died from the snakebites. Then they realized they had done something wrong and turned away from (or repented of) their sin. They asked Moses to pray that God would take away the snakes. But God didn’t do that. He gave them a choice.

The Bronze Serpent
The Brazen Serpent by Gustave Doré (1832-1883). Scan courtesy of The Doré Bible.

God told Moses to make a bronze snake and put it on a pole. If a person was bitten, he could continue to look down at the snakes and die or he could look up at the pole in faith and live. God was providing a remedy or cure for the poisonous sin in his life. God has always treated his children the same from the beginning of time. In the Garden of Eden the choice was to obey (by not eating the forbidden fruit) and live, or sin (by eating it) and die. Jesus explained the meaning of the story of the snakes to Nicodemus.

(Read John 3:14-15) Jesus said that God was going to lift him up on the cross as a sacrifice for the sins of everyone. Those that look to the cross and see Jesus in place of their sin will live forever. Jesus is the only cure for the sin in our lives. When the bitten Israelites looked up at the bronze snake, they were not only admitting their sin but also looking to the Savior in faith. They were not saved by what they saw but by their faith in God.* God has always provided a way for us to be saved. We can be thankful that he sent Jesus to be lifted up on the cross for us.

* Unfortunately, this pole with the bronze snake became an idol later and had to be broken to pieces. 2 Kings 18:4

©2000 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.

Israelite Nite Lite

We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light. – Plato

Text: Exodus 40:38

flashlightProp: A child’s nite lite

Summary: God provided the children of Israel a nite lite in the wilderness and is always protecting us.


For the cloud of the Lord was upon the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.

Look what I brought with me. Do you recognize what this is? [a child’s nite lite] When I was a little boy I didn’t have a nite lite. When it was time for me to go to bed and the lights went off, I was scared of the dark sometimes. Do you ever get scared of the dark? Isn’t it nice when your parents let you have a nite lite so you won’t be scared of the dark?

When the children of Israel were wandering the wilderness I’ll bet it got pretty dark at night. There were no streetlights, only the moonlight on clear nights. The wilderness was full of wild animals and snakes. It would be a very scary place to be in the dark. God knew that his people would be scared unless they knew He was there to protect them. So when Moses and the leaders had finished making all the things God told them to make for their worship services, then God blessed them by staying with them in a way they could see. His glory came to rest with the Ark of the Covenant. He shone as a pillar of cloud during the hot days so they could have some shade from the heat of the sun. At night, he shone as a pillar of fire to give the children of Israel a nite lite. I’m sure this made them feel safe and secure because they could see that God was with them.

Jesus is like that with us. He is always with us to protect us. He is always watching over you and other little children. He doesn’t want us to be scared and afraid. Jesus wants us to love Him and trust Him each day. When you turn on your nite lite as you go to bed tonight, remember that God gave his children a nite lite in the wilderness and is always there to protect us.

©1997 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.

Red Sea Escape

Text: Exodus 14

Prop: a straw and small plate with water

Summary: God is with us when we face danger. God parted the Red Sea to provide an escape for Israel from the Egyptian army.

Alternate Skit: Use long thin balloons: 10 blue, 2 red, 2 green. Shape 2 Egyptian helmets from the green balloons. Recruit children to play parts. Use some to be the sea (holding the blue balloons), one child to be the Angel of the Lord (holding 2 red balloons as if it is a pillar of fire), two children to be horsemen. Cut out two chariot wheels from construction paper. Have a narrator read the story. Recruit an adult to play Moses. When the wind blows and the sea parts, have the children raise the blue balloons and wave them, creating a wall on the left and right. Have Moses lead the children through the parted sea. When the two horsemen chase them, have them drop the chariot wheels and then when Moses stretches out his hand, the sea covers the Egyptians.

God still does miracles. Have you ever been in danger? One day my neighbor Len was trying to jump-start a riding lawnmower using the battery in his Jeep. He thought the emergency brake was on but somehow the Jeep started rolling backwards down his driveway. He ran after it and opened the door. When he tried to get in the moving vehicle, he slipped and his head fell under the Jeep. He saw the front tire coming straight for his head and thought he was about to die. Suddenly he felt someone yank him out from under the Jeep. The Jeep continued to roll into the next yard until it hit a tree and stopped. When he sat up no one was around. He thanked God for having an angel pull him to safety. Today I want to tell you about another miracle when God provided an escape for the children of Israel when they were facing danger.

When God lead the children of Israel out of Egypt, God told Moses to camp near the Red Sea. God knew that Pharaoh would chase after them if he thought they were trapped between the wilderness and the sea. When the children of Israel saw the army with chariots and horsemen approaching, they panicked and cried to God for help.

(Read Exodus 14:13-14) Jesus calls us to do impossible things by faith. God told Moses to go forward (verse 15) but that meant going into the sea! But remember, Jesus said with God all things are possible (Matthew 19:26). God provided the children of Israel with an Israelite Nite Lite. He gave them a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night. Then the angel of God moved from leading them and went behind them. The pillar was a cloud of darkness on the side facing the Egyptian army, hiding the Israelites from their enemy, but it shone brightly to give light to the children of Israel.

(Read Exodus 14:21-22) Wow! Can you picture what God did? Watch this. [Blow through the straw on the plate filled with water to demonstrate the wind blowing on the sea to divide the waters.) The wind blew so hard on the sea that the waters were divided. There was a wall of water on each side as the children of Israel hurried through on dry ground. When Pharaoh’s army chased after them God caused the wheels on the chariots to fall off and they couldn’t drive them! When the children of Israel were safely on the other side, Moses again stretched out his hand and the waters let loose and drowned the army in the sea. With this miraculous parting of the Red Sea, God provided an escape for the children of Israel from Pharaoh’s army.

It only took God one day to get Israel out of Egypt, but He would spend 40 years getting the Egypt out of Israel. They continued to complain and failed to trust God to lead them, so they wandered in the wilderness. Sometimes we may face great danger. It is hard to stand still and not panic, but Jesus wants us to trust and depend on Him. God is always with us to protect us. He can provide a way of escape even if our problem seems hopeless. We don’t need to be afraid because Jesus gives us victory in life if we just trust in Him.

©1999 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.


As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us. – Psalm 103:12

Text: Leviticus 16:8, 21-22; Isaiah 53:6

Summary: The scapegoat is explained as a picture of Jesus removing our sins.

Prop: a picture of a scapegoat.

I want to tell you a story to explain what the word “scapegoat” means.

One day all the children in the kindergarten were crowding around the cookie bowl trying to get a cookie. Someone knocked over the cookie bowl. The children scrambled to get away as it crashed to the floor. The teacher heard the loud noise and came over to see scattered cookie pieces and broken glass on the floor. “Who did this?” she asked. No one said a word. They all felt guilty because each of them had been near the bowl when it fell. But no one knew whom to blame. “Woof!” barked Spot, the school mascot. “Oh, so you know who did this?” the teacher asked the dog. “Well, since no one wants to take the blame I suppose you will be the scapegoat and take the blame for them all,” she explained. “Now you will be sent out into the school yard and you can’t come back inside!”

The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854, provided courtesy of CGFA.
The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854, provided courtesy of CGFA.

So from the story we know that a scapegoat is someone that takes the blame for others. While the children of Israel were wandering in the wilderness God told them to have one special day each year called the Day of Atonement. On that day the priest would make a special sacrifice for all the people’s sins. As part of that sacrifice he would take two goats, one that would be killed for the Lord, and one that would be kept alive for the scapegoat.*

(Read Leviticus 16:8, 21-22.)

The priest would lay both hands on the scapegoat and say a prayer. The prayer was a confession of sins for all the people’s wrongdoings the past year. When he said that prayer he was asking God to put all the blame for their sin on the goat. Then the goat was led out into the wilderness and let go and never allowed to return to the camp of the Israelites again. That was God’s way of saying he would not hold them responsible for those things they had done wrong ever again. They could see that their sins, now on the head of the goat, were being removed from them.

Look how far I’m stretching my hands apart. (Hold your arms wide apart.) I want you to pretend that my arms could stretch all the way out the windows and so far that you couldn’t see my hands anymore. The Bible says that God has removed our sins from us as far as the east is from the west. That is a long, long way. Jesus took away all our sins (or badness) when he died on the cross for us. The Bible says in Isaiah 53:6, All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. Jesus took the blame for us. He takes away the sins of everyone who turns to him by faith and trusts him as Savior.

Let us pray: Dear Lord Jesus, I’m sorry I do bad things sometimes. Thank you for taking away my sins. Help me to be your child. Amen.

* For Azazel (pronounced az-aw-ZALE) meaning goat of departure. The goat offered as a sin offering is a picture of Christ yet to come. It was slain as a sin offering and then burned outside the camp; Jesus was crucified for the sins of the world outside the gates of Jerusalem. Likewise, the scapegoat is a picture of Jesus removing our sins.

©2001 by Jim Kerlin. All rights reserved.